Acupuncture is the European term for the chen-jiu treatment method, which is translated from Chinese and means acupuncture and cauterization.
Acupuncture has a very ancient history. It appeared at least several thousand years BC, which was proved by archaeological findings in different countries.
Many people believe that acupuncture originally appeared on the territory of ancient China and other Far Eastern countries, because the great number of ancient books on acupuncture has been preserved and remained in those countries. It can be seen that now in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam acupuncture is widely used along with modern (Western) medicine.
There is an evidence that acupuncture was also used in other ancient peoples of Siberia, Africa, Brazil, Egypt, Peru, and others.
According to Chinese medicine, the coordination between different parts of the human body, as well as between our surface and internal organs are carried out by various channels (jing-lo), which are called meridians in the modern acupuncture. The meridians can be determined as the paths of movement of energy and information, linking together internal organs, the surface of the body, as well as providing a connection between the body and the environment. Due to this, the body can efficiently respond to certain vibrations of the external and internal environment, supporting dynamic homeostasis.
To understand how it works, we can say that the human body is entangled by an energy network consisting of various meridians which have certain functions and topography.
Everybody knows that there are: 12 standard (principal), 8 extraordinary, 12 tendomuscular, 12 divergent, 15 longitudinalis and 15 transversalis meridians.
Standard (principal) meridians
As it was above mentioned, there are 12 of them.
Definition of the meridians (according to the French interpretation)
P – lungs (poulmons)
GI – large intestine (gros intestin)
E – gaster (l’Estomac)
RP – spleen + pancreas gland (la rate + le pancréas)
C – heart (le coeur)
IG – small intestine (l’intestin fin)
V – urinary bladder (l’urinaire la vessie)
R – kidneys (reins)
MC – pericardial sac (péricarde)
TR – three parts of the body (trois sources les reproductions de l’énergie)
VB – gall bladder (le vésicule biliaire)
F – liver (le foie)
6 of them refer to the Yin system (P, C, RP, R, MC, F) and other 6 to the Yang system (G, E, Ig, V, TR, VB).
Standard meridians are divided into 6 arm meridians (P, MC, C are Yin meridians; GI, TR, IG – Yang meridians) and 6 leg meridians (RP, F, R – Yin; E, VB, V – Yang).
The energy in the meridians circulates in two directions – in the centrifugal or centripetal and one day it makes a complete circulation throughout the entire system of meridians. During the day, each one of the 12 meridians experiences the greatest surge of energy within 2 hours, and this time period is called the time of maximum activity of the meridian, and the next two hours – the time of minimum activity of the meridian.
Each meridian consists of an outer and inner branch.
Acupuncture points are located on the outer branch of the meridian – accessible for acupuncture.
The Theory of Yin Yang Monad
The hieroglyphs Yin and Yang are just symbols of the law of opposites. So, by these hieroglyphs we mean:
Chinese medicine is the most ancient theory of the Far Eastern countries that is widely used nowadays. It is based on the ancient scientists’ understanding of the cyclicity and correlation of natural processes expressed by various symbols. They believe that the cyclicity is typical for all the phenomena and is based on the changing of Yin and Yang.
In its accomplished form, the theory started to be expressed through five elements (symbols): wood, fire, earth, metal, water; connected with each other by formative and destructive bonds. So, it was called the theory of “Five Elements”.
The Wu - Xing Pentagram
The continuous lines around the perimeter represent the formative or stimulating effects, the discontinuous lines inside the scheme represent the destructive ones.
The tree can be understood as a symbol of birth and growth.
The fire is a symbol of maximum activity.
The metal is a symbol of depression.
The water is a symbol of minimal activity.
The Earth is the center and axis of cyclical changes throughout the Universe.
The Wu - Xing theory describes the following types of relationships between these “Five Elements”:
a) cross-stimulatory bonds;
b) cross-inhibitory bonds;
c) an excessive inhibitory effect;
d) a reverse inhibitory effect.
But, mainly, the Wu - Xing theory is used to explain the etiology and mechanisms of the development of abnormal changes in various diseases.
So, for example, when any internal organ is affected, then the work of other organs may be disturbed at the same time or a general disease with a varying type of medical course occurs. If we analyze the disease according to the theory of the “Five Elements”, then its whole complex development leads to the following four mechanisms:
Mutual excessive inhibitory effect;
Mutual reverse inhibitory effect;
A disorder of a type “the influence of the mother on her son”;
A disorder of a type “the influence of the son on his mother”.
For example, a painful condition of the lungs may be caused by a damage of the lungs themselves. However, if the painful condition of the lungs occurs when the affected spleen affects the lung function, in such a case this condition is interpreted as a disorder of a type “the influence of the mother on her son”. If a painful condition of the lungs occurs under the circumstances caused by a kidney disease, in such a situation this condition can be called a disorder of a type “the influence of the son on his mother”. If the painful condition of the lungs occurs because of the influence of a heart disease on them, then the mechanism of this is considered an excessive inhibitory effect of the metal (lungs) by the fire (a heart); and the painful condition of the lungs, caused by the influence of the affected liver, is usually explained by a reverse inhibitory effect of the metal (lungs) by the tree (a liver).
In Chinese traditional medicine, the classification of the objects according to their correspondence to the “Five Elements” and the concept of the bonds between them are also used to explain abnormal changes in the patient's condition.
For instance, facial flushing and a bitter taste in the mouth offer the possibility of a heart abnormality (see table 3). A spleen disease, accompanied by a greenish face color, indicates that the tree (a liver) has an excessive inhibitory effect on the earth (a spleen). When a face gains a dark color in a case of a heart disease, this is the case when the water (kidneys) has inhibitory effect on the fire (a heart) and etc.
Summarizing, it should be mentioned that the Yin-Yang theory and the theory of the “Five Elements” are tightly connected, supplement each other, and are usually used together in clinical practice.
«Tree» «Fire» «Earth» «Metal» «Water»
Days of the week
Note of pentatonic